Biochips can infer unknown target molecules through molecular hybridization or immunoreactions, through probes or sample organisms immobilized on biochips and free sample organisms or probes, and use various labels for these reactions. The technology is marked to produce biological signals. These biological signals are collected and automatically collected into computers for analysis and processing to achieve large-scale detection of biological information. As shown in Figure 4.
Biochips mainly refer to microfluidic analysis units and systems that are constructed on the surface of solid chips through planar microfabrication techniques to achieve accurate, rapid, and large amounts of information on cells, proteins, nucleic acids, and other biological components.
2.3 Biochip classification
Biochips include the three major areas of DNA chip, protein chip and chip lab.
2.3.1 DNA Chip (DNACHIP)
As a kind of biochip, the DNA chip has many synonyms, such as Genechip, DNA microchip, DNA array, DNA microarray, and because DNA is a The oligonucleotides are also called oligonucleotide arrays or Oligonucleotide arrays. The basic principle is that the gene probe is complementary to the base of a specific oligonucleotide, and it comprehensively applies many related technologies such as biology, chemistry, and engineering technology science. This technology was first developed by the United States Affymetrix company.
DNA chip is the most basic, the earliest research and development, the most mature and the most widely used product in biochip. Compared with traditional sequencing technology, its outstanding advantage is that the entire detection process is fast and efficient. Because the probe array has a high degree of sequence diversity, it can scan and analyze a large number of genes and even the entire genome at the same time, enabling people to comprehensively study the function of genes from a higher level and analyze the biological correlation between different genes. Sex.
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